Scenario of Panama Wilt Disease of Banana and its Management
Dr. Pramod Kumar Rai1, Dr. Hadi Husain Khan2, Nirmal Chandra Ghose3, Mofiul Islam4 Pushpendra Singh Sahu5 & Mohd. Danish6
1Director, ICAR-Directorate of Rapeseed-Mustard Research, Bharatpur – 321303 (Rajasthan), India.
2Research Associate, ICAR-DRMR-APART, Dhubri -783324 (Assam), India.
3SDAO (HQ)-Cum-Nodal Officer, ICAR-DRMR-APART, Dhubri – 783324 (Assam), India.
4Deputy Project Director, CSS-ATMA, Dhubri -783324 (Assam), India.
5Department of Entomology, SHUATS, Naini- Prayagraj (Allahabad) -211007 (U.P.), India.
6Research Scholar, Department of Entomology, SHUATS, Naini- Prayagraj -211007 (U.P.), India.
Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the most important fruit crops grown in tropical and sub-tropical region throughout the world. Banana (Musa paradisiaca Linn.) is an herbaceous perennial monocotyledonous plant, belongs to family Musaceae. The plant is also known as Kalpatharu, which means herb with all imaginable uses. The cultivated hybrids are mostly triploid (2n=3x=33). Banana pulp per100 gm has calorific value ranging from 67 to 137 calories. The nutritive value of banana is similar to that of potato, but compare to potato, banana pulp contains higher energy in calories per 100 gm. The ripe banana pulp contains about 70 % water with 23.43 % carbohydrate, 1.03 % protein, 0.48 % fat, 39.6 % potassium, 0.6 % calcium, 0.1 % sodium, 0.03 % Iron and 7 types of vitamins including vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin C, Thiamin, Riboflavin, Folacin and Niacin. Banana provides more balanced diet compare to other fruits and has a more therapeutic value with low salt, fat content and cholesterol. Banana is an important fruit crop grown in the different state of India. Among, them Andhra Pradesh state was ranks first in the country in terms of annual production of 5003.07 thousand metric tonnes (2017-18). It is being cultivated in an area of 88.96 thousand hectares. (Source: All India 2017-18(Statistics) Department of Agriculture cooperation and Farmers Welfare, GOI, New Delhi).
What is the Importance of Fusarium Wilt (Wilt) Disease?
1. Fusarium wilt disease or Panama wilt disease soil-borne fungal disease Fusarium, oxysporum f.sp. cubense is highly destructive throughout the world including India.
2. Can affect almost all commercial varieties of India. If once the field becomes diseased, its spores can live in the soil for more than 40 years.
3. Panama wilt disease is becoming a serious problem for banana growing states i.e., Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, West Bengal and North Eastern states.
4. Due to heavy losses in banana production, farmers of many parts of the state have started growing other types of crops like turmeric, maize and sugarcane etc.
About the Pathogen:
This disease was incited by soil-borne wilt fungi i.e., Fusarium oxysporium f.sp. cubense and later known as Panama disease. Panama wilt reduces the yield and the marketability of banana fruits and becomes a major issue in banana-growing areas (Singh, 2005). In India, the disease becomes wide-spreading among all banana cultivating states with severity as high as 80-90% due to disease susceptible varieties cultivating on that state on a large scale. Until now, there are four different races of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense has been recorded.
Race – 1: It affects varieties mainly Pome (AAB) and Silk (AAB) groups of bananas.
Race – 2: It attacks to Bluggoe types of bananas and other closely related cooking bananas.
Race – 3: Caused diseases in Heliconia sp. Not confined to India. It occurs in Honduras, Australia and Costa Rica.
Race – 4: All known varieties of banana are susceptible against this race.
Race 4 has divided in two i.e., tropical and subtropical. It produced disease in dwarf Cavendish groups of bananas and those who are susceptible to Race 1 and Race 2. Subtropical Race 4 produced disease in dwarf Cavendish groups of bananas in different countries like Canary Islands, Australia, Taiwan and South Africa. Australia and Southeast Asia the TR 4 influences Cavendish groups of bananas in the tropical areas. (Bentley et. al., 1998, Ploetz, 1994).
Entry and Survival Pattern of this Pathogen in Plants:
1. The pathogen in the soil infect the banana plant through the roots, then block the vascular system present in the pseudo stem through the rhizome and eventually the movement of water and nutrients into the stem. This causes the leaf to turn yellow and the plant dies.
2. Fusarium pathogen can survive up to 10 years in the form of chlamydospores. Once entered into the farm, they can live for more than 40 years as chlamydospores.
3. These germs can survive on weeds such as Chloris inflata, Kommolina diffuza, Ensete Vetricosum, Euphorbia heterophylla, Chloris barbata (Purple Top Chloris), Tridex procumbens and Panicum purporescence.
4. Fusarium pathogen movement of infected seedlings and planting of contaminated parts of plants such as pseudo stem tissue and leaves of infected plants or transporting agricultural equipment, tools, shoes, animals, clothing soil and infected soil. Use as a substrate, due to strong storms, strong winds or heavy rains and floods or irrigation water or drainage after rain, or river flow between diseased area and diseased or contact with other roots from plant roots in the field Insect vectors, especially banana mites such as rhizome borer (Carm borer), Cosmopolytes sardidus and stem borer (stem borer), are also involved in germ spread.
Lower leaves of the infected plant turned into pale yellow colour. These yellowing areas start from the margin and spread towards midribs. After 14 days infection leaves turned completely yellow. In later stages of the disease, the basal portion of the pseudostem cracking in young plants and tearing of the pseudostem gradually proceeded to the equidistant of the pseudostem.
The internal symptom was observed when the infected rhizome / pseudostem was cut transversally/ longitudinally. The vascular discoloration was evident on the longitudinally cut rhizome /pseudostem with brown dot and streaks with inner tissue white.
But in the case of advanced-stage infection, infected vascular bundles were observed with stained dark colour and brown pigments. There was a presence of a black roundish pattern in transversally cut pseudostem and infected rhizome showed a dark brown roundish pattern in the transversally cut portion and infected rhizome not developed bad odour like rhizome rot of banana.
1. Place a sign board (write with a warning mark that careful and restricted entry from TR4) at the entry point of the farm infected with Fusarium wilt disease tropical race 4.
2. For restricted entry inside the field, mark wilt disease infected plants by tying rope / colour ribbon.
3. Glyphosate 2–5 ml/plant at two sites to infected plants especially one needle at the bottom of the plant, 2 feet above the ground surface.
4. After weedicide the injected plants, they should be burnt immediately or wait till other plants are harvested.
5. The infected plants should be uprooted and not kept in the field or irrigation channel.
6. Immediately after the signs of wilt disease, Carbadazim (0.1 to 0.3%) @ 3-5 L / plant drenching at the rate of 3–5 times at 15 days interval and all plants (both infected and uninfected plants) On pseudostem of Carbadazim 0.1% solution at the rate of 3 ml. Needles should be applied in the third, fifth and seventh month of planting.
7. Follow the policy of clean and go clean (wear polythene shoes or foot covers when entering the field and remove them when leaving the field and keep them for reuse). Place two taped drum downwards at the entry point of the field. One is used for holding water and the other for sterilizing equipment such as polydimethyl ammonium chloride 1% (@ 10 g / liter of water) used in the solution, hands, feet first after washing with water and after washing with sterilizing material.
8. Keep the plant and field free from weeds and plant residues.
9. Protect the plant from infection of pseudo stem mites (after brushing the plant with Brass, after spraying Neem oil 3 ml, Chloropyriphos 3 ml / liter of water or Triazophos 2 ml in two places on the pseudo stem. For the management of rhizome mite, in the third and fifth month of planting, around the plant in soil, Furadan 40 g / plant.
10. Adopt the plant handing during harvesting of the crop so that the spread of the disease through the stalk can be avoided during marketing in infection-free areas.
11. After harvesting, the entire plant should be uprooted and burnt their place.
12. Follow crop rotation once or twice including paddy / sugarcane / spice / pineapple, after the 2-3 cycles of bananas.
13. Before next crop, keep the field submerged for 1 to 3 months.
14. Follow the biological management method i.e., by laying paddy or maize straw of 500 to 1000 kg / acre and keep the field submerged for 20 to 30 days.
15. Tractor tires and plough and other equipment are required to be disinfected before leaving the field and similarly before entering the field. As much as possible, do not use a common tractor for ploughing.
16. Use disease free tissue culture plants in place of sucker.
17. If sucker is used for planting, they should be brought from disease free plants and peeled and immersed in Carbadazim (0.2% solution) for 30-45 minutes and then planting.
18. Adopt good agronomic practices like recommended doses of fertilizers (low nitrogen and high potassium amounts, prefer nitrate fertilizer and high amounts of organic fertilizers such as neem cake, vermicompost, well Rotten cow dung manure, improve soil health by using effective microorganism like Trichoderma.
19. Rhizospheric Trichoderma asperallum @ 100 g/plant or molasses based liquid formulation Trichodema harzianum @ 2 liter/plant. Use 3 times from the date of planting (during planting and in the second and fourth month). This method was found to be effective against Fusarium wilt disease.
20. Used drip irrigation and fertigation.
21. Prevent the irrigation water movement from the infected field to other fields, so that the disease spread can control.
1. Bentley, S., Pegg, K. G., Moore, N. Y., Davis, R. D. and Buddenhagen, I. W., (1998), Genetic variation among vegetative compatibility groups of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense analysed by DNA fingerprinting. Phytopathology.88: 1283-1288.
2. Ploetz, R.C. (1994). Fusarium wilt and IMTP Phase ll. In: The improvement and testing of Musa: A Global Partnership. D.R. Jones (ed.), INIBAP. Montpellier, France.
3. Singh, S.K. (2005). Annual Report of AICRP. Tropical fruits, RAU, Pusa Centre 63.