Scenario of Powdery Mildew of Wheat in India and its Management
Dr. Pramod Kumar Rai1, Dr. Hadi Husain Khan2, Nirmal Chandra Ghose3, Mofiul Islam4 Pushpendra Singh Sahu5 & Mohd. Danish6
1Director, ICAR-Directorate of Rapeseed-Mustard Research, Bharatpur – 321303 (Rajasthan), India.
2Research Associate, ICAR-DRMR-APART, Dhubri -783324 (Assam), India.
3SDAO (HQ)-Cum-Nodal Officer, ICAR-DRMR-APART, Dhubri – 783324 (Assam), India.
4Deputy Project Director, CSS-ATMA, Dhubri -783324 (Assam), India.
5Department of Entomology, SHUATS, Naini- Prayagraj (Allahabad) -211007 (U.P.), India.
6Research Scholar, Department of Entomology, SHUATS, Naini- Prayagraj -211007 (U.P.), India.
Wheat is an important cereal crop and a staple food of vast majority of the human population. It is a cool season crop, widely cultivated under varied agro-ecological conditions and cropping systems throughout the world. Presently in world, wheat is grown over an area of 240.4 m ha with a production of 757.92 mt and a productivity of 3,438 kg ha-1 . India stands fourth among wheat producing countries both in respect of area and production. In India, it is grown over an area of 30.71 m ha with a production of 101.20 mt and a productivity of 3,295 kg ha-1 (Anon., 2019.). Wheat plays an important role in the cropping programme of Karnataka. It has already been proved to be the best component crop under multiple cropping system of the state. Karnataka is unique in wheat cultivation where in all three cultivated species, viz., Triticum aestivum L., (Bread wheat), T. durum (macroni wheat) and T. dicoccum (Khapli, Sadaka or Emmer wheat) are grown in tropical climates characterized by the prevalence of high temperature during the crop growth. In Karnataka, the area under wheat is 1.68 lakh ha with an annual production of 1.72 lakh tonnes and productivity of 1010 kg ha-1 (Anon., 2018).
Scenario of Powdaery Mildew (PM) of Wheat in India:
In India, this disease has assumed importance especially in North Western Plains zone, Northern Hills zone and Southern Hills zone.
1. Powdery mildew produces white to grey, cottony white fungal mycelial growth mostly on the upper leaf surface, although some pustules may develop on the underside of the leaf.
2. Powdery mildew is most prevalent on lower leaves but can also cause blighting of the upper leaves, heads and awns of susceptible cultivars.
Caused by fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp tritici
1. The temperature ranges of 3-35°C with optimum of 15-20ºC has been found favourable for their germination of conidia whereas for the infection of the seedling’s optimum temperature of 20°C coupled with RH between 24-75 % is essential.
2. Prolonged high RH, high number of rainy days, high plant population, early sowing and over doses of N fertilizer
3. Epidemics tend to occur when warm weather alternatives with dry and wet periods, accompanied by wind.
Integrated Disease Management:
1. Crop rotation with non-host plant.
2. Elimination of volunteer plants.
3. Destruction of wheat residues.
4. Lower planting density.
5. Reduced irrigation.
6. Application of recommended dose of nitrogen fertilizers.
7. Foliar spray of Propiconazole 25EC @ 0.1% and Tridemorph 40SC @ 0.1% control the disease up to 96.55 and 93.64 per cent, respectively.
8. Foliar spray of Tebuconazole 25EC @ 0.05 and 0.1% was also found effective against PM of wheat.
9. Growing of resistant cultivars like DWR-1006, DWR-195, HD-2278, HD-1981, HD-4672, HD-4530.
1. Anonymous, 2018, Annu. Rep. Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research (IIWBR), Karnal, India, p. 30.
2. Anonymous, 2019, www.indiaagristat.com